In his excellent book Why We Do What We Do, based on empirical research, Edward Deci shows that intrinsic motivation is more effective than extrinsic motivation. Contrary to the behaviorist dogma, only self-motivation underlies successful learning, creativity, responsibility, healthy behavior, and long-lasting change. Intrinsic motivation comes from innate psychological needs. The first need is for autonomy, that is, the need to feel that you are the author of your actions. The second is for competence, striving to be effective in the world around us. The third need, for relatedness with other people, facilitates the integration of external values and makes us take necessary actions required by society. Of all the needs, autonomy is the cornerstone. That's because there is a strong connection between autonomy and responsibility and between autonomy and intrinsic motivation. Therefore, the author describes how to promote and support autonomy in others. He also suggests what people can do when they find themselves in an environment where there is a lot of external control.
You can browse the full mindmap on XMind gallery.